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Best performances obtained on a Quartz oscillator at 5 MHz. The flicker frequency modulation (FFM) floor is in the range of 2.5 × 10−14–3.2 × 10−14 for 10 to 20 s integration time. In grey the best result measured by Dual Mixer Time Difference Multiplication , in black the confirmation of this performance measured with time interval analyzer (TIA) . For the black curve, results are limited by the TIA for lower averaging time and by aging for upper averaging times.
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